Contents.History The term ' avionics' was coined by the journalist as a of ' aviation electronics'. Many modern avionics have their origins in wartime developments. For example, systems that are commonplace today began as specialized systems to help bomber planes fly steadily enough to hit precision targets from high altitudes. Famously, radar was developed in the UK, and then given to the US through the Modern avionics is a substantial portion of military aircraft spending. Aircraft like the and the now retired have roughly 20 percent of their budget spent on avionics. Most modern now have budget splits of 60/40 in favour of avionics.The civilian market has also seen a growth in cost of avionics. Flight control systems and new navigation needs brought on by tighter airspaces, have pushed up development costs.
The major change has been the recent boom in consumer flying. As more people begin to use planes as their primary method of transportation, more elaborate methods of controlling aircraft safely in these high restrictive airspaces have been invented. Modern avionics Avionics plays a heavy role in modernization initiatives like the 's (FAA) project in the United States and the (SESAR) initiative in Europe. Main article:is the determination of position and direction on or above the surface of the Earth. Avionics can use systems (such as and ), INS( inertial navigation system), ground-based systems (such as or ), or any combination thereof. Navigation systems calculate the position automatically and display it to the flight crew on moving map displays. Older avionics required a pilot or navigator to plot the intersection of signals on a paper map to determine an aircraft's location; modern systems calculate the position automatically and display it to the flight crew on moving map displays.Monitoring.
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The Airbus A380 glass cockpit featuring pull-out keyboards and two wide computer screens on the sides for pilots.The first hints of emerged in the 1970s when flight-worthy (CRT) screens began to replace electromechanical displays, gauges and instruments. A 'glass' cockpit refers to the use of computer monitors instead of gauges and other analog displays. Aircraft were getting progressively more displays, dials and information dashboards that eventually competed for space and pilot attention. In the 1970s, the average aircraft had more than 100 cockpit instruments and controls.Glass cockpits started to come into being with the G‑IV private jet in 1985. One of the key challenges in glass cockpits is to balance how much control is automated and how much the pilot should do manually. Generally they try to automate flight operations while keeping the pilot constantly informed. Aircraft flight-control system.
Main article:Aircraft have means of automatically controlling flight. Was first invented by during to fly bomber planes steady enough to hit accurate targets from 25,000 feet. When it was first adopted by the, a engineer sat in the back seat with bolt cutters to disconnect the autopilot in case of emergency.
Nowadays most commercial planes are equipped with aircraft flight control systems in order to reduce pilot error and workload at landing or takeoff.The first simple commercial auto-pilots were used to control and altitude and had limited authority on things like and surfaces. In, auto-stabilization was used in a similar way. The first systems were electromechanical. The advent of and electro-actuated flight surfaces (rather than the traditional hydraulic) has increased safety. As with displays and instruments, critical devices that were electro-mechanical had a finite life. With safety critical systems, the software is very strictly tested.Fuel Systems Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) monitors the amount of fuel aboard. Using various sensors, such as capacitance tubes, temperature sensors, densitometers & level sensors, the FQIS computer calculates the mass of fuel remaining on board.Fuel Control and Monitoring System (FCMS) reports fuel remaining on board in a similar manner, but, by controlling pumps & valves, also manages fuel transfers around various tanks.
Refuelling control to upload to a certain total mass of fuel and distribute it automatically. Transfers during flight to the tanks that feed the engines. From fuselage to wing tanks. Centre of gravity control transfers from the tail (Trim) tanks forward to the wings as fuel is expended.
Maintaining fuel in the wing tips (to help stop the wings bending due to lift in flight) & transferring to the main tanks after landing. Controlling fuel jettison during an emergency to reduce the aircraft weight.Collision-avoidance systems. Main article:To supplement, most large transport aircraft and many smaller ones use a (TCAS), which can detect the location of nearby aircraft, and provide instructions for avoiding a midair collision. Smaller aircraft may use simpler traffic alerting systems such as TPAS, which are passive (they do not actively interrogate the of other aircraft) and do not provide advisories for conflict resolution.To help avoid controlled flight into terrain , aircraft use systems such as (GPWS), which use radar altimeters as a key element. One of the major weaknesses of GPWS is the lack of 'look-ahead' information, because it only provides altitude above terrain 'look-down'.
In order to overcome this weakness, modern aircraft use a terrain awareness warning system.Flight recorders. Main articles: andWeather systems such as (typically on commercial aircraft) and are important for aircraft flying at night or in, where it is not possible for pilots to see the weather ahead. Heavy precipitation (as sensed by radar) or severe (as sensed by lightning activity) are both indications of strong convective activity and severe turbulence, and weather systems allow pilots to deviate around these areas.Lightning detectors like the Stormscope or Strikefinder have become inexpensive enough that they are practical for light aircraft. In addition to radar and lightning detection, observations and extended radar pictures (such as ) are now available through satellite data connections, allowing pilots to see weather conditions far beyond the range of their own in-flight systems.
Modern displays allow weather information to be integrated with moving maps, terrain, and traffic onto a single screen, greatly simplifying navigation.Modern weather systems also include and turbulence detection and terrain and traffic warning systems. In‑plane weather avionics are especially popular in Africa, and other countries where air-travel is a growing market, but ground support is not as well developed. Aircraft management systems There has been a progression towards centralized control of the multiple complex systems fitted to aircraft, including engine monitoring and management.
(HUMS) are integrated with aircraft management computers to give maintainers early warnings of parts that will need replacement.The concept proposes an integrated architecture with application software portable across an assembly of common hardware modules. It has been used in and the latest generation of.Mission or tactical avionics have been designed either to deliver a weapon or to be the eyes and ears of other weapon systems. The vast array of sensors available to the military is used for whatever tactical means required. As with aircraft management, the bigger sensor platforms (like the E‑3D, JSTARS, ASTOR, Nimrod MRA4, Merlin HM Mk 1) have mission-management computers.Police and EMS aircraft also carry sophisticated tactical sensors.Military communications While aircraft communications provide the backbone for safe flight, the tactical systems are designed to withstand the rigors of the battle field., Tactical (30–88 MHz) and SatCom systems combined with methods, and secure the communications. Data links such as, and, and even provide the means of transmitting data (such as images, targeting information etc.).Radar Airborne was one of the first tactical sensors. The benefit of altitude providing range has meant a significant focus on airborne radar technologies.
Radars include (AEW), (ASW), and even and ground tracking/proximity radar.The military uses. While the civil market has had weather radar for a while, there are strict rules about using it to navigate the aircraft.
Sonar Dipping sonar fitted to a range of military helicopters allows the to protect shipping assets from submarines or surface threats. Maritime support aircraft can drop active and passive sonar devices and these are also used to determine the location of enemy submarines.Electro-Optics Electro-optic systems include devices such as the (HUD), (FLIR), and other passive infrared devices. These are all used to provide imagery and information to the flight crew.
This imagery is used for everything from search and rescue to and.ESM/DAS Electronic support measures and defensive aids are used extensively to gather information about threats or possible threats. They can be used to launch devices (in some cases automatically) to counter direct threats against the aircraft. They are also used to determine the state of a threat and identify it.Aircraft networks The avionics systems in military, commercial and advanced models of civilian aircraft are interconnected using an avionics databus.
McGough, Michael (August 26, 2005). Retrieved April 26, 2012. Shaffer, Robert. 'Unexplained Cases'–Only If You Ignore All Explanations', March/April 2011, page 58.
^ By Jeffrey L. Published by Write Stuff Syndicate, Inc. 'The Legend of Honeywell.' Most Secret War. Douglas Nelms (April 1, 2006).
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(PDF). Joint Planning and Development Office. September 30, 2011. Archived from (PDF) on April 17, 2012.
Retrieved January 25, 2012. Chad Trautvetter (November 20, 2017). AIN.
^ Avionics: Development and Implementation by Cary R. Spitzer (Hardcover – December 15, 2006). Ramsey, James (August 1, 2000). Aviation Today. Retrieved January 25, 2012. Fitzsimons, Bernard (November 13, 2011). Aviation International News.
Retrieved December 27, 2011. Retrieved May 30, 2017.Further reading. Avionics: Development and Implementation by Cary R. Spitzer (Hardcover – Dec 15, 2006). Principles of Avionics, 4th Edition by Albert Helfrick, Len Buckwalter, and Avionics Communications Inc. (Paperback – Jul 1, 2007). Avionics Training: Systems, Installation, and Troubleshooting by Len Buckwalter (Paperback – Jun 30, 2005).
Avionics Made Simple, by Mouhamed Abdulla, Ph.D.; Jaroslav V. Svoboda, Ph.D. And Luis Rodrigues, Ph.D. (Coursepack – Dec. 2005 - ).External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to.Look up in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.