Roland Erne Chapter 14 Interest Groups

Roland Erne Chapter 14 Interest Groups 4,9/5 8012 votes

.Since the in 1979, the has been accused by several countries of training, financing, and providing weapons and safe havens for non-state militant actors, such as in Lebanon, in Gaza, and other Palestinian groups ( (PIJ) and the -General Command (PFLP-GC)). These groups are by a number of countries and international bodies; however, Iran considers such groups to be 'national liberation movements' with a right to self-defense in the face of.


The has also accused Iranian-backed Iraqi Shia militias of terrorism against US troops, and Iran of, primarily through its. Contents.Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps After the fall of the Shah in 1979, the established the (IRGC) to domestically promote the government's social policy. IRGC is accused of spreading its ideology in neighboring regions by training and funding 'terrorist organizations'. By 1986, IRGC had 350,000 members and had acquired a small naval and air force. By 1996, its ground forces numbered 100,000 and the naval forces numbered 20,000. They are believed to use the to train.In 1995, the Iranian Revolutionary Guard held a conference with worldwide organizations accused of engaging in terrorism including the, the Armenian Secret Army, the, the, the and Hezbollah in for the sole purpose of providing training to these organizations supposedly to help in the destabilization of Gulf States and aid assistance to militants in these countries to replace the existing governments with Iran-like regimes.The United States State Department states that IRGC provides support for, Hezbollah and in.

They also say that IRGC has given much support and training to terrorists supporting the Palestinian resistance. They are also accused of aiding the Iraqi insurgency in southern Iraq. On September 26, 2007, the passed legislation by a vote of 76-22 designating the Iranian Revolutionary Guards a terrorist organization.

President and Congress labeled the group under the guidelines established by issued after the. Alleged activities in other countries Albania On 19 December 2018 expelled Iran’s ambassador to the country, and another Iranian diplomat for 'involvement in activities that harm the country's security', for 'violating their diplomatic status and supporting terrorism.' The expelled Iranians were alleged to have plotted terrorist attacks in the country, including targeting MEKPMOI event to silence dissidents. Bahrain On 30 September 2015, security forces discovered a large bomb-making factory in and arrested a number of suspects linked to the. The next day, 1 October, Bahrain recalled its ambassador to and asked the Iranian acting to leave the kingdom within 72 hours after he was declared. Bahrain's decision to recall its ambassador came 'in light of continued Iranian meddling in the affairs of the kingdom of Bahrain in order to create sectarian strife and to impose hegemony and control.On 6 January 2016, Bahrain said it had dismantled a terrorist cell allegedly linked to the Revolutionary Guards and Hezbollah.

The Bahraini interior ministry said the cell was planning to carry out a “series of dangerous bombings” on the kingdom, and that many members were arrested including the group's leaders, 33-year-old twins Ali and Mohammed Fakhrawi. India In July 2012, reported that police had concluded that terrorists belonging to a branch of Iran’s military, the, were responsible for an, during which a bomb explosion targeted an Israeli diplomat in New Delhi, wounding one embassy staff member, a local employee, and two passers-by. According to the report, the Iranian Revolutionary Guards may have planned other attacks on Israeli targets around the world as well. Israel Iran does not recognize as a state, and provides support for Hamas, Hezbollah.

Hamas Iran supplies political support and weapons to, an organization classified by Israel, the United States, Canada, the European Union, Egypt, Australia and Japan as a terrorist organization., has said 'Hamas is funded by Iran. It claims it is financed by donations, but the donations are nothing like what it receives from Iran'. From 2000 to 2004, Hamas was responsible for killing nearly 400 Israelis and wounding more than 2,000 in 425 attacks, according to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. From 2001 through May 2008, Hamas launched more than 3,000 Qassam rockets and 2,500 mortar attacks into Israel. Hezbollah.

Main article:During the 1980s and 1990s, a wave of kidnappings, bombings, and assassinations of Western targets, particularly American and Israeli, occurred in Lebanon and other countries. The attacks, attributed to Hezbollah, have included:. The 1982-1983.

The blowing up of a van filled with explosives in front of the killing 58 Americans and Lebanese in 1983. The of the and French 'Drakkar' barracks which killed 241 American and 58 French peacekeepers. On May 30, 2003, a U.S. Federal judge ruled that Hezbollah carried out the attack at the direction of the Iranian government. The in collaboration with the Iraqi Dawa Party.

The, killing 24 people. The hijacking of holding the 39 Americans on board hostage for weeks in 1985 and murder of one U.S.

Navy sailor. The from 1982 to 1992. According to Middle East analyst James Philips, an August 1989 bombing in London was a failed Hezbollah assassination attempt on Indian-born British author, after the Iranian government put a $2.5 million bounty on his head over the novel. Iranian officials have repeatedly called for Rushdie's death as recently as 2005. The in killing twenty-nine people in 1992. Hezbollah operatives boasted of involvement.

The in killing 85 people in 1994. Hezbollah claimed responsibility.

Roland Erne Chapter 14 Interest Groups

Roland Erne Chapter 14 Interest Groups And The Media

Argentine justice accused Iran of being behind the attacks because of Buenos Aires' decision to suspend a nuclear material delivery and technology transfer. The, killing 21 people, in Panama. Hezbollah claimed responsibility. The 1996, killing 19 US servicemen.

On December 22, 2006, federal judge Royce C. Lamberth ruled that Iran was responsible for the attack, stating 'The totality of the evidence at trial.firmly establishes that the Khobar Towers bombing was planned, funded, and sponsored by senior leadership in the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The defendants' conduct in facilitating, financing, and providing material support to bring about this attack was intentional, extreme, and outrageous.' . The, killing 6, in Bulgaria.

Hezbollah is believed to have carried out that attack on its own accord, without any Iranian involvement or foreknowledge.Islamic Jihad is widely believed to be a nom de guerre of the Lebanese Islamist political movement and social service agency Hezbollah, which was founded in 1982 with many millions of dollars of aid and considerable training and logistical support from the Islamic Republic. Many believe the group promotes the Iranian agenda and that its goal is to overthrow the moderate governments in the area and create Islamic Republics based on that of Iran as well as the destruction of Israel. Iran has supplied the militant organization Hezbollah with substantial amounts of financial, training, weapons (including long range rockets), explosives, political, diplomatic, and organizational aid while persuading Hezbolla to take an action against Israel. Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its four main goals as 'Israel's final departure from Lebanon as a prelude to its final obliteration' According to reports released in February 2010, Hezbollah received $400 million from Iran.Its methods include,.

It is believed to be one of the Islamic resistance groups that made suicide bombings common use. Other attacks credited to Hezbollah include:.

Firing of hundreds of rockets into northern Israel on a daily basis and capture of Israeli soldiers in 2006. According to a senior U.S. Intelligence officer, the 2005 assassination of Lebanese Prime Minister was carried out by Hezbollah at the direction of Iranian agents.Shi'ite Militias in Iraq Iranian proxies killed an estimated 1,100 US troops in Iraq.

In addition, insurgents supported by Iran reportedly committed acts of terrorism. The United States State Department states that weapons are smuggled into Iraq and used to arm Iran's allies among the Shiite militias, including those of the anti-American cleric and his.During his address to the United States Congress on September 11, 2007, Commanding Officer for the United States forces in Iraq, General noted that the multinational forces in Iraq found that Iran's Quds force had provided training, equipment, funding, and direction to Shi'ite militia groups. Main article:On 14 February 2012, a series of explosions occurred in,. Thai authorities said that the bombings were a botched attempt by Iranian nationals to assassinate Israeli diplomats. Several Iranians were arrested and charged for the attacks, one of whom was badly injured.France In October 2018, froze Iranian financial assets in response to an alleged bomb plot to be carried out against an opposition group at a rally in Paris.

The plot was said to be against the, which styles itself as Iran’s. Assadollah Assadi, an Iranian diplomat in the Vienna embassy, was arrested in Germany in connection with the alleged plot to blow up a meeting of Iranian dissidents in Paris in June. Denmark In October 2018, said the Iranian government intelligence service had tried to carry out a plot to assassinate an Iranian Arab opposition figure on its soil.

The planned assassination was of an exiled leader of the (ASMLA). Sweden extradited a Norwegian national of Iranian background to Denmark in connection with the foiled plot against the ASMLA leader. Alleged Al-Qaeda ties leaders regard Muslims as and have attacked their mosques and gatherings. In Iraq it considers Shi'i civilians to be legitimate targets for acts of violence. The group has been designated as a terrorist organization by Iran and many other countries, and Iran has a hostile relationship with the group.

However, allegedly and Iran formed an alliance during the 1990s in which Hezbollah trained al Qaeda operatives. Iran detained hundreds of al Qaeda operatives that entered the country following the; even though 'the Iranian government has held most of them under house arrest, limited their freedom of movement, and closely monitored their activities,' U.S. Officials have expressed concerns that Iran has not fully accounted for their whereabouts, culminating in accusations of Iranian complicity in the 2003. 1998 United States embassy bombings On November 8, 2011, Judge John D.

Bates ruled in federal court that Iran was liable for the in Kenya and Tanzania. In his 45-page decision, Judge Bates wrote that 'Prior to their meetings with Iranian officials and agents Bin Laden and al Qaeda did not possess the technical expertise required to carry out the embassy bombings in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam.' USS Cole bombing In March 2015, U.S.

Federal judge Rudolph Contreras found both Iran and Sudan complicit in the, stating that 'Iran was directly involved in establishing Al-Qaeda's Yemen network and supported training and logistics for Al-Qaeda in the Gulf region' through Hezbollah. Two previous federal judges had ruled that Sudan was liable for its role in the attack, but Contreras's 'ruling is the first to find Iran partly responsible for the incident.' September 11. Main article:The U.S. Indictment of bin Laden filed in 1998 stated that al-Qaeda 'forged alliances.

With the government of Iran and its associated terrorist group Hezbollah for the purpose of working together against their perceived common enemies.' On May 31, 2001, and wrote in that 'Officials of the Iranian government helped arrange advanced weapons and explosives training for Al-Qaeda personnel in where they learned, for example, how to destroy large buildings.'

The stated that 8 to 10 of the hijackers on previously passed through Iran and their travel was facilitated by Iranian border guards. The report also found 'circumstantial evidence that senior Hezbollah operatives were closely tracking the travel of some of these future muscle hijackers into Iran in November 2000.' After the commission called for 'further investigation' into a possible Iranian role in the attacks, President demanded that Iran sever its ties with al-Qaeda, while saying that in his view, 'There was no direct connection between Iran and the attacks of September 11.' Judge ruled in a federal district court in Manhattan that Iran bears legal responsibility for providing 'material support' to the 9/11 plotters and hijackers in Havlish, et al. Osama bin Laden, Iran, et al. Included in Judge Daniels' findings was that Iran 'used front companies to obtain a Boeing 757-767-777 flight simulator for training the terrorists', traveled to Iran in January 2001, and an Iranian government memorandum from May 14, 2001 demonstrates Iranian culpability in planning the attacks. Two defectors from Iran’s intelligence service testified that Iranian officials had 'foreknowledge of the 9/11 attacks.'

By contrast, the 9/11 Commission 'found no evidence that Iran or Hezbollah was aware of the planning for what later became the 9/11 attack. At the time of their travel through Iran, the al Qaeda operatives themselves were probably not aware of the specific details of their future operation.' In addition, both bin al-Shibh and denied 'any relationship between the hijackers and Hezbollah' and 'any other reason for the hijackers' travel to Iran' besides 'taking advantage of the Iranian practice of not stamping Saudi passports.' Riyadh compound bombings According to Seth G.

Jones and, the 2003 were planned by al Qaeda operatives in Iran, with apparent Iranian complicity. In May 2003, then-State Department official provided information on the upcoming attack to Iranian officials, who apparently took no action.

Opposing view A study based on documents uncovered in found that the Iran-al Qaeda 'relationship is not one of alliance, but of indirect and unpleasant negotiations over the release of detained jihadis and their families, including members of.' According to longtime (CIA) analyst: 'Rather than being secretly in bed with each other as some have argued, al Qaeda had a fairly hostile relationship with the Iranian regime. To get members of his family out of Iran, for example, bin Laden had an Iranian diplomat kidnapped and then traded. The Iranians released some of his family members in the deal but then double-crossed al Qaeda by not letting one of his daughters, Fatima, free.' Taliban insurgency U.S.

And British officials have accused Iran of giving weapons and support to the in. Cyberattacks In October 2012, a former United States government official said that American authorities believe that Iranian hackers, who were likely supported by the Iranian government, were responsible for cyberattacks against oil and gas companies in the. Defense Secretary has called the cyberattacks the most destructive cyberattacks in the private sector.

Another American official said that the Obama administration knows that a government was responsible for the cyberattacks, which was confirmed by American agencies investigating the cyberattacks.Just a few days after United States put Iran’s, IRGC in List social media blocked accounts belonging to IRGC, and Qassem Soleimani commander of the Quds force. US court judgements On multiple occasions, US courts have awarded damages to the victims of terrorism; deemed payable by Iran on the basis that although the attacks were not directly controlled by Iran, evidence shows Iranian payments supporting these terrorist groups. There has been controversy over how to enforce these decisions in order to make Iran pay reparations.

Other allegations Along with the above allegations, Iran is also accused of other acts of terrorism. On September 17, 1992, insurgent leaders, Fattah Abdoli, Homayoun Ardalan and their translator Nouri Dehkordi were assassinated at the Mykonos Greek restaurant in,.

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In the Mykonos trial, the courts found Kazem Darabi, an national who worked as a grocer in Berlin, and Abbas Rhayel, guilty of murder and sentenced them to life in prison. Two other Lebanese, Youssef Amin and Mohamed Atris, were convicted of being accessories to murder. In its 10 April 1997 ruling, the court issued an international arrest warrant for Iranian intelligence minister Hojjat al-Islam after declaring that the assassination had been ordered by him with knowledge of supreme leader and president.

Sponsoring at least 30 terrorist attacks between 2011 and 2013 'in places as far flung as Thailand, New Delhi, Lagos, and Nairobi', including a and bomb the Israeli and Saudi embassies in Washington, D.C.See also.